The Two Congresses:

Representation v. Law Making

I.    Constitutional Obligations (summary of powers)

    A.    Lawmaking:  Article 1, Sec. 8

    B.    Representation:  Article 1, Sec 2 & 3

    C.    Amendment XVII    

[COLAS:  Since its adoption, this amendment has not hindered members of the Congress from receiving "cost of living adjustments" (COLAs). In the case of Boehner v. Anderson,[3] the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit ruled that the Twenty-seventh Amendment does not affect annual COLAs. In Schaffer v. Clinton,[4] the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit ruled that receiving such a COLA, does not grant members of the Congress standing in federal court to challenge that COLA; the Supreme Court did not hear either case and so has never ruled on this specific issue.] Wikipedia

II.    Popular Perceptions - A Love/Hate Reaction

    A.    Loving Your Representative

    B.    Hating Congress

III.    Three Analytical Roles

    A.    Instructed Delegate

            One should directly reflect the views of the constituents.    

    B.    Free Agent (Edmund Burke)          

"Parliament is not a congress of ambassadors from different and hostile interests; which interests each must maintain, as an agent and advocate, against other agents and advocates; but parliament is a deliberative assembly of one nation, with one interest, that of the whole; where, not local purposes, not local prejudices ought to guide, but the general good, resulting from the general reason of the whole. You choose a member indeed; but when you have chosen him, he is not a member of Bristol, but he is a member of parliament." And further: "Your representative owes you, not his industry only, but his judgment; and he betrays instead of serving you if he sacrifices it to your opinion." (Speech to the Electors of Bristol, November 3, 1774.)
    C.    Responsible Party Member:  Party Caucuses

1.    HOUSE

2.    SENATE

IV. Congressional Fragmentation

V. Congressional Integration


Key Web Sites


Office of the Clerk

Roll Call:  Capitol Hill Newspaper
FAQ's re Congress