Relations Between the White House and Congress

I.     Built in Conflict - (summary)

   A.    Divergent Roles and Responsibilities

        1.     Article II -- Constitutional Ambiguities

        2.     Differing Time Frames

    B.    Separate Organizations

    C.    Disparate Constituencies

    D.    Protection of Prerogatives

II.    Presidential Responsibilities in Law Making

    A.    Agenda Setting (Carter's Mistakes)

    B.    Role of Office of Management and Budget

    C.    Legislative Empowerment of President (Budget and Accounting Act - 1921)

    D.    The Veto Power (Vetoes Cast - Pocket Veto)

        1.    A Limited Veto (Overrides of Vetoes)

        2.     Occasions for Usage (Pres. Jackson's Veto of the Bank Bill; example of recent Veto Message; )

        3.    The Line Item Veto

        4.    Ability to Shape Legislation

        5.    Executive Orders

III.    Shared Powers in Executive Area

     A.    Appointment Power

            1.    Administrative

            2.    Judicial

     3.    Recess Appointments

            4.    The Removal Power

     B.    Treaty Power (constitutional conflicts)

     1.    Executive Agreements

            2.    Treaties

       C.     War Powers (1973 War Powers Resolution)

IV.    Forces Encouraging Cooperation Between Branches

    A.    Political Parties

    B.    Informal Relationships - The Power to Persuade

    C.     Institutional Interdependencies

V.    Presidential Methods of Influence

    A.    Liaison Groups

    B.    Patronage

    C.    Going Public

    D.    "Schmoozing"

VI.    Assessment of Respective Power Positions

    A.    Causes of Variability of Positions

        1.     Events

        2.     Personalities

        3.    Party Balance

        4.     Institutional Cohesion

    B.    Non-Zero Sum Game

    C.    Public Opinion - Presidential Approval Ratings

Key Web Sites

House Members who became President or Presidential Candidates

Senators Who Became President

Constitutional foundations of Presidency