The President and Congress

I.    Shared Powers

    A.    Veto Power

        1.    Regular Veto (summary overview)  (Overrides of Vetoes)  (Clinton's "bizarre" veto) (Jackson's Veto of 2nd National Bank)

        2.    Pocket Veto

        3.    Line Item Veto - Clinton v. City of New York

    B.    Appointment Power

        1.    Administrative

        2.    Judicial (the "Nuclear Option")

        3.    Recess Appointments

        4.    The Removal Power

    C.    Treaty Power (constitutional conflicts)

        1.    Executive Agreements

        2.    Treaties

    D.    War Powers (1973 War Powers Resolution) (CRS Analysis)

II.    Presidential Leadership of Congress

    A.    Historical Overview

        1.    Pre-Modern Era

        2.    Modern Era

        3.    Tools Available

            a.     Party Leadership

            b.     "Bully Pulpit"

            c.     Constitution

            d.     Popular Mandate

            e.     Personal Persuasion

            f.     Legislative Enhancement (Budgeting)

   B.    Tension Filled Relationship

        1.    Sources of Conflict    

        2.    Patterns of Relations

            a.     Presidential Dominance

            b.     Congressional Dominance

            c.     Shared Leadership

    C.    Crises and Leadership

        1.    Crisis Cultivation

        2.    Crises and Alleged Constitutional Violations

            a.     Civil War

            b.     WWI (1917 Espionage Act)

            c.     WWII

            d.     Korea

            e.     Vietnam

            f.     Terrorist Attacks (Patriot Act)

            g.    Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan (Boumediene v. Bush, 2008)

Key Web Sites

Treaties and Executive Agreements on the Internet

The Legislative Role of the President

Veto Power as Negotiating Tool