Judicial Decision Making:  Three Models

I.    Legal Influences

    A.    Procedural

        1.    Justiciability Issues

            a.     Advisory Opinions

            b.     Standing Requirements

            c.     Mootness

            d.     Ripeness

            e.     Political Questions

        2.    Time Limitations

        3.    Self-Restraint

        4.    Interpretative Doctrines

    B.    Substantive

        1.    Statutory Language

        2.   Stare Decisis

II.    Political Influences

    A.    Attitudinal:  Political, Social, Economic

        1.    Conservatism

        2.    Liberalism

    B.    Organizational

        1.    Interest Groups

            a.     Judicial Selection

            b.     Litigation (amicus curiae briefs - example)

            c.     Professional Publications

    C.    Institutional:  Strategies Considerations

III.    Rational-Choice

    A.    Typical Dominance of Legal Influences

    B.    Circumstances Promoting Dominance of Attitudinal Model

        1.     "Close" Cases

        2.    Role of Precedents

        3.    Presence of Issues in Case High on Policy Preference of Judges

        4.    Presence of Extreme Societal Stress

    C.    Judicial Policy Making

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