I.    Nature of Policy Making

    A.     End Product of Government Action or Inaction

    B.     Non-neutral Nature

    C.     Complexity

    D.     Imprecision

II.     Characteristics of Judicial Policy-Making

    A.    Policy Making for the Judiciary

        1.     United States Judicial Conference

        2.     States

    B.     Appellate Based

    C.     Policy Stated in Written Opinions

    D.     Common Law

          1.     Development

          2.     Legacy      

          3.      Judicial review

    E.     Collegial Development

    F.     Administration by Other Branches

III.     Policy-Making As Activist in Nature

    A.     Nature of Activism

    B.     Causes of Activism

    C.     Problems of Activism (critique)

IV.     Judicial Self-Restraint

    A.     Nature of Restraint

    B.     Principles of Restraint

    C.     Example       

Key Web Sites

United States Supreme Court

National Center for State Courts: Web Sites