States and Federalism

I.        Structure of Federalism

    A.    Indestructibility

    B.    Reserved Power (The 10th Amendment)

    C.    Delegated Powers and National Supremacy

        1.    Military and Defense

        2.    Economic Powers (taxing, spending, regulating)

        3.    Government Organization

        4.    Implied Powers  McCulloch v. Maryland, 1819)

    D.    Denied Powers (Article I, Sec. 9)

    E.    State Role in National Government

        1.    Apportionment

        2.    Elections (primaries and caucuses)

        3.    Amending the Constitution

II.        Power Shifts in the Federal Relationship

    A.    Dual Federalism (1788-1913)

    B.    Cooperative Federalism (1913-1964)

    C.    Centralized Federalism (1964-1980)

    D.    The New Federalism (1980-1985)

    E.    Representational Federalism (1985-1994) (Garcia v. San Antonio Metro Transit -

                  counter view --U.S. v. Lopez)

    F.    Devolution (timeline)

III.     Coercive Federalism:   Pre-emption and Mandates

    A.    Intergovernmental Tax Immunities

    B.    Federal Mandates

    C.    Unfunded Mandates (Mandate Monitor)

IV.      Federal Grants-in-Aid (trends - 2004 - CATO Institute View)

    A. Basic Purposes:  Money provided by one level of government to another

    B. Categoric Grants:  A GIA targeted for a specific purpose either by formula or by project

    C. Formula Grants:  A categoric grant distributed according to a particular formula which specifies who is eligible for the grants and how much each eligible applicant will receive.

    D. Block Grants:  A GIA awarded for General Purposes allowing the recipient great discretion in spending the grant money.

    E. Revenue Sharing:  A now defunct program used in the 1970's and 1980's to provide "strings fee" money to states and general purpose local governments.

V.        Interstate Relations - Horizontal Federalism

    A.    Full Faith and Credit Requirement

    B.    Privileges and Immunities Requirement

    C.    Interstate Compacts

    D.    Interstate Rendition (example)

    E.    State Conflicts

    Key Websites

Power Point Presentation

National Governor's Association

National Conference of State Legislatures

National League of Cities

U.S. Conference of Mayors

National Association of Counties

National Association of Towns, Townships and Small Communities

U.S. Advisory Commission on Intergovernmental Relations

Grants from Federal Government:  Application Forms

Federal Aid to the States:  Historical Cause of Government Growth and Bureaucracy

    Useful Web Links