Congressional Change


Pre-Modern Congress


High Turnover of Membership Low Turnover of Membership
Many Contested Elections Few Contested Elections
Short Sessions, relatively light workload Long sessions, heavy workload
Chaotic Floor Proceeding Orderly Floor Proceedings
High turnover of committee personnel; shifting criteria for assignment Low turnover of committee personnel; stable criteria for assignment
Numerous criteria for appointment of committee chairs Seniority is one of the dominant criterion for appointment of committee chairs along with party loyalty, personal reputation
Undeveloped party structures Well-developed political party structures within the institution and in campaign organizations
Few Perks and low salary (1) High Salary and many perks; (2) travel junkets; (3) expansive medical care; (4) special retirement program (retirement with up to 80% of current full salary); (5) generous office expense and travel allowance; (6) life insurance; (7) free parking; (8) numerous in-house "freebies"
Low cost, low tech campaigns Very high cost and high tech campaigns