Leaders and Parties:   Non-Seniority Leadership

I.    House of Representatives

         A.    Speaker

        1.    Historic Background

        2.    1910 Revolt

        3.    Powers

    B.    Floor Leaders and Whips

        1.    Majority Party

        2.    Minority Party

II.    Senate

    A.    Vice President

    B.    Party Leaders

        1.    Majority Party

            a.     Majority Leader

            b.     Whips

        2.    Minority Party

            a.     Minority Leaders

            b.     Whips

III.    Caucuses (Wikipedia)

    A.    Party Caucuses

    B.    Non-Party Caucuses

        1.    Categorical

        2.    Issue

        3.    Geographic

IV.    Functions of Congressional Leaders

    A.    Institutional Arena

        1.    Organize Chamber

        2.    Monitor Activities

        3.    Impact Agenda

    B.    Party Arena

        1.    Promote Party Unity

        2.    Develop Party Agenda

        3.    Deliver Votes

    C.    Public Arena

        1.    Publicize Agenda

        2.    Defend Party Positions (Leader Web Site)

        3.    Defend Congressional Prerogatives (Legislation)

V.    Divided Government

    A.    Historical Rarity

    B.    Post-1968 Era

    C.    Effects

        1.     Encouragement of Policy Deadlocks

        2.    Diffusion of Political Responsibility & "Blamesmanship"

        3.    Decreasing Public Respect for Government

Key Web Sites

Congress Links:  University of Michigan