Congress and the Bureaucracy

I.    Executive Branch Dependency on Congress

    A.    Congressional Creation of Bureaucracy

                    Bureaucracies are characterized by (Max Weber model)

    B.    Funding the Bureaucracy (The Budgetary Process)

    C.    Reorganizing

        1.     Presidential Reorganization Powers

        2.     Congressional Approval

        3.     Internal Reorganization

    D.    Senatorial Confirmation

    E.    Civil Service System

II.    Types of Agencies

    A.   Executive Departments

  • "Birthdates" of Executive Branch Departments 
    State 1789
    Treasury 1789
    Defense (originally War & Navy) 1789
    Interior 1849
    Agriculture 1862
    Justice (Attorney General est. 1789) 1870
    Commerce 1903
    Labor 1913
    Health & Human Services 1953
    Housing & Urban Development 1965
    Transportation 1966
    Energy 1977
    Education 1979
    Veterans Affairs 1989
    Homeland Security 2002

    B.    Regulatory Agencies

    C.    Quasi Governmental Agencies-Government Corporations

    D.    Executive office of the President   

III.    Growth of Bureaucracy:  Causes and Consequences

    A.    Growth Measurement

        1.     Number of Personnel

        2.    Funds Expended

        3.     Mission Expansion

        4.     Populations Served

    B.    Growing Intercomplexity of Society - Welfare State

    C.    National Security Concerns

    D.    Development of Interlocking Interdependencies

    E.    Aid to Incumbents    

IV.    Congressional Vetoes

    A.    Defined

    B.    INS v. Chadha (1983)

        1.    Court ruling

        2.     Practical Effect

V.    Congressional Oversight

     A.    Government Accountability Office

     B.    Congressional Hearings

Key Web Sites   

The Bureaucracy:  The Real Power (Bob Alley - Trinity Web Site)

The Federal Bureaucracy:  What is it?  How is it Organized?

Bureaucratic Politics