Presidential Powers and Perquisites:

A Changing Dynamic

I.    Presidential Powers

    A.    Constitutional Powers

        1.    chief executive (two views)

        2.    commander in chief

        3.    "Prerogative Theory of the Presidency"

        3.    chief diplomat (A Presidential Directive)

        4.    chief administrator

        5.    head of state

        6.    veto power and legislative leadership

        7.    appointment power

        8.    pardoning power:  Clinton's Pardons (FAQ)

    B.    Extra-Constitutional Powers

        1.    the electronic "bully pulpit"

        2.    the power to persuade

        3.    spokesperson for national interest

        4.    president as celebrity

        5.    global leader

        6.    party leader

        7.    manager of economic prosperity

III.    Limits on Powers

    A.    Constitutional

        1.    shared power with Congress

        2.    subject to judicial review (Steel Seizure Case)

        3.    two term limit (22nd Amendment)

        4.    possibility of impeachment

        5.    federalism

    B.    Extra Constitutional Limits

        1.    personal weaknesses

        2.    macro economic/political events

        3.    political climate of opinion

        4.    media scrutiny and criticism

        5.     administrative/bureaucratic size and inertia

        6.    congressional imposed limitations on presidential powers

IV.    Political Leadership:  Characteristics, Features & Elements

    A.    charismatic (charisma and words of Presidents)

    B.    situational

    C.    ephemeral

    D.    courageous

    E.    inspirational

    F.    personal

Key Web Sites

Presidential Powers and Limitations

An Eclectic Site on U.S. Presidents

Voices of Presidents

Miller Center on the Presidency:  Recording of Presidents

The American President:  An On-Line Reference Resource